Thursday, January 14, 2016

Did Black People Own Slaves?

 black slaveowner

One of the most vexing questions in African-American history is whether free African Americans themselves owned slaves. The short answer to this question, as you might suspect, is yes, of course; some free black people in this country bought and sold other black people, and did so at least since 1654, continuing to do so right through the Civil War. For me, the really fascinating questions about black slave-owning are how many black “masters” were involved, how many slaves did they own and why did they own slaves?
The answers to these questions are complex, and historians have been arguing for some time over whether free blacks purchased family members as slaves in order to protect them — motivated, on the one hand, by benevolence and philanthropy, as historian Carter G. Woodson put it, or whether, on the other hand, they purchased other black people “as an act of exploitation,” primarily to exploit their free labor for profit, just as white slave owners did. The evidence shows that, unfortunately, both things are true. The great African-American historian, John Hope Franklin, states this clearly: “The majority of Negro owners of slaves had some personal interest in their property.” But, he admits, “There were instances, however, in which free Negroes had a real economic interest in the institution of slavery and held slaves in order to improve their economic status.”

In a fascinating essay reviewing this controversy, R. Halliburton shows that free black people have owned slaves “in each of the thirteen original states and later in every state that countenanced slavery,” at least since Anthony Johnson and his wife Mary went to court in Virginia in 1654 to obtain the services of their indentured servant, a black man, John Castor, for life.


  1. Of course black people owned slaves in antebellum America. At one time the largest slave owner in the state of Louisiana was a free black man that owned over 700 black slaves. Another free black man owned 362 black slaves in Montgomery County, Alabama. It is not taught in schools, but a free black man legally had the same rights as any other man. A free black man could own property (slaves), marry a white woman, etc. About the only thing a free black man could not do was vote. The harsh segregation "jim Crowe" laws that definitely discriminated against blacks did not come into being until after Re-Construction. This subject is just one of many misconceptions about slavery.